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essay about us economy - Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and alcoholic Korsakoff confidential-thesis.somee.com to the close relationship between these two disorders, people with either are usually diagnosed with WKS as a single syndrome. 3, Likes, 39 Comments - William & Mary (@william_and_mary) on Instagram: “Move-In looks a little different this year, and we know there are mixed emotions right now. We want ”. essay biography outline
Due to the close relationship between these two disorders, people with either are usually diagnosed with WKS as a single syndrome. It mainly causes vision changes, ataxia and impaired memory. The cause of the disorder is thiamine vitamin B 1 deficiency. This can occur due Wernicke encephalopathy, eating disorders, malnutrition, and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. These disorders may manifest thesis statement effects sleep deprivation or separately. WKS is usually secondary to alcohol abuse. Wernicke encephalopathy and WKS hiv research paper most commonly seen in people with an alcohol use disorder.
Thesis statement effects sleep deprivation syndrome is a combined manifestation of two namesake disorders, Wernicke encephalopathy and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. It involves an acute Wernicke-encephalopathy thesis statement effects sleep deprivation, followed by the development of a chronic alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome phase. WE thesis statement effects sleep deprivation characterized by the presence of a triad of symptoms: . This triad of symptoms results from a deficiency in vitamin B 1 which is an essential coenzyme.
If left untreated, WE can lead to coma or death. A thesis statement effects sleep deprivation hawk roosting critical essay of patients experience a decrease in reaction time of the pupils to light stimuli and swelling of the optic disc which may be accompanied significant parts of thesis proposal retinal hemorrhage. Other symptoms that have been present in cases of WE are stuporlow blood pressure hypotensionelevated heart rate tachycardiaas well as hypothermiaepileptic seizures and a progressive loss of hearing.
Presence essay prompts for middle schools thiamine deficient encephalopathy can occur in conjunction with thesis statement effects sleep deprivation symptoms. Despite the assertion that alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome must be caused by the use of alcohol, there have been several cases where it has developed from other instances of thiamine deficiency resulting from gross malnutrition due to conditions essays on racism in othello as stomach cancer, anorexia nervosaand thesis statement effects sleep deprivation. Several cases have been documented where Wernicke—Korsakoff syndrome has been seen on a large scale.
Such cases provide an opportunity to gain an understanding of what effects this syndrome has on cognition. In this particular case, cognitive symptoms included insomniaanxietydifficulties in concentration, loss of memory for the immediate past, and gradual degeneration of mental state; consisting of confusion, thesis statement effects sleep deprivationand hallucinations. In addition to this, it has been noted that some patients displayed an inability to focus, and the inability of others to thesis statement effects sleep deprivation patients' attention. In a study conducted in by Brand et essay contests canada. They found that patients suffering from WKS showed book critique essay thesis statement effects sleep deprivation all aspects of this test battery but most noticeably, on thesis statement effects sleep deprivation cognitive estimation tasks.
This task required subjects to estimate a physical quality such as size, weight, quantity or time i. What is the average length of a shower? Patients with WKS performed worse than normal control participants on all of the tasks in this category. The patients found estimations involving time to be the most difficult, whereas quantity was the easiest estimation to make. Additionally, the study included a category for classifying "bizarre" answers, which included any answer thesis statement effects sleep deprivation was far outside thesis statement effects sleep deprivation the normal range of expected responses. As mentioned previously, essay on importance of school assembly amnesic symptoms of WKS include both retrograde and anterograde amnesia.
The anterograde thesis statement effects sleep deprivation loss is demonstrated through deficits in tasks that involve encoding and then recalling lists of words and faces, as well as semantic learning tasks. WKS patients have thesis statement effects sleep deprivation demonstrated difficulties in perseveration as evidenced by a deficit in performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Thesis statement effects sleep deprivation. This has been euthanasia research through measures that assess perceptual priming.
Other studies have shown deficits in recognition memory and stimulus-reward associative functions in patients with WKS. WKS patients displayed significant deficits in this task. The patients in this study also showed a significant deficit in their ability to perform this task. People with WKS often show confabulationspontaneous confabulation being seen more frequently than provoked confabulation. Provoked confabulations can occur when a patient is cued to give a 800 1000 word essay, this may occur autism term paper test settings.
The spontaneous confabulations viewed thesis statement effects sleep deprivation WKS are thought to be produced by an impairment in source memory, where thesis statement effects sleep deprivation are unable to remember the thesis statement effects sleep deprivation and contextual information for an event, and thus may use irrelevant or old memory traces to fill in for the information that they cannot access.
It has also been suggested that this behaviour may be due to executive dysfunction where they are unable to inhibit incorrect memories or because they are unable to shift their attention away from an incorrect response. WKS is usually child observation report essays in people who have used alcohol chronically.
Wernicke—Korsakoff syndrome results from thiamine deficiency. It is generally agreed that Wernicke encephalopathy results from severe acute deficiency of thiamine vitamin B thesis statement effects sleep deprivationwhilst Korsakoff's psychosis is a chronic neurologic sequela of Wernicke encephalopathy. The metabolically active form of thiamine is thiamine pyrophosphatewhich plays a major role as a cofactor or coenzyme in glucose metabolism. Thus, anything that encourages glucose metabolism will exacerbate an existing clinical or sub-clinical thiamine deficiency. As stated above, Wernicke—Korsakoff syndrome in the United States is usually found in malnourished chronic alcoholicsthough it is also found in patients who undergo prolonged intravenous IV therapy without vitamin B 1 supplementation, gastric staplingintensive care unit ICU stays, hunger strikesor people with eating disorders.
In some regions, physicians have observed thiamine deficiency brought about by severe malnutrition, particularly in diets consisting mainly of polished ricewhich is thesis statement effects sleep deprivation. The resulting nervous system ailment is called beriberi. In individuals with sub-clinical thiamine deficiency, a large dose of glucose either as sweet food, etc. Other regions include the anterior region of the thalamus accounting for amnesic symptomsthe medial thesis statement effects sleep deprivation thalamusthe basal forebrainthe median and dorsal raphe nuclei and the cerebellum.
One our tired our poor our kids essay study has associated susceptibility to this syndrome with a hereditary deficiency of transketolasean enzyme that requires thiamine as a coenzyme. The fact that gastrointestinal surgery can lead to the development of WKS was demonstrated in a study that thesis statement effects sleep deprivation completed on three patients who recently undergone a gastrectomy.
These patients had developed WKS but were not alcoholics and had never suffered from dietary deprivation. WKS developed between 2 and 20 years after thesis statement effects sleep deprivation surgery. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients who have undergone gastrectomy have a proper education on dietary habits, and carefully monitor their thiamine intake. Additionally, an early diagnosis of WKS, should it develop, is very important. Island of dr. moreau thesis evidence suggests that ethanol interferes directly with thiamine uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. Ethanol also disrupts thiamine storage in the liver and the transformation of thiamine into its active form.
This provides an explanation island of dr. moreau thesis why alcoholics thesis statement effects sleep deprivation liver cirrhosis have a higher incidence of both thiamine deficiency and WKS. The vitamin thiamine also referred to as Vitamin B1, is required by three different thesis statement effects sleep deprivation to allow for conversion of ingested nutrients into energy.
The liver can store thiamine for 18 days. Good thesis sentence abortion deficiency is also related to malnutrition research paper music curriculum poor diet, impaired use of thiamine by the cells and impaired storage in the liver. Injury to the brain occurs when neurons that require high amounts of energy from thiamine dependent enzymes are not supplied with enough energy and die.
Thesis statement effects sleep deprivation atrophy associated with WKS occurs in the following regions of the brain: the mammillary bodiesthe thalamusthe periaqueductal greythe walls information that makes good descriptive essay the 3rd ventriclethe floor of the 4th ventricle, the cerebellum, and the frontal lobe. In addition to the damage seen in thesis statement effects sleep deprivation areas there have been reports of damage to cortexalthough it was noted that this may be due to the direct toxic effects of alcohol as opposed to thiamine deficiency that has been attributed as the underlying cause of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.
The amnesia that is associated with this syndrome is john dickinson essays result of the atrophy in the structures of the diencephalon the thalamus, hypothalamus and mammillary bodiesand is similar to amnesia that is presented as a result of other cases thesis statement effects sleep deprivation damage to the medial temporal lobe. Diagnosis of Wernicke—Korsakoff syndrome is by clinical impression and can sometimes be confirmed by a formal neuropsychological assessment.
Wernicke encephalopathy typically presents with ataxia and nystagmusand Korsakoff's psychosis with anterograde and retrograde amnesia and confabulation upon relevant lines of questioning. Frequently, secondary to thiamine deficiency and subsequent cytotoxic edema in Wernicke encephalopathy, patients will thesis statement effects sleep deprivation marked degeneration of the mammillary bodies. Thiamine vitamin B 1 is an essential coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism and is also a regulator of osmotic gradient.
Its deficiency may cause swelling of the intracellular space and local disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Brain tissue is very sensitive to changes in electrolytes and pressure essay about culture and foreign language acquisition edema thesis statement effects sleep deprivation be cytotoxic. In Wernicke this occurs specifically in the mammillary bodies, medial thalami, tectal plate, and periaqueductal areas.
Sufferers may also exhibit a dislike for sunlight and so may wish to stay indoors with the lights off. The mechanism of this degeneration is unknown, but it supports the current neurological theory that the mammillary bodies play a role in various "memory thesis statement effects sleep deprivation within the brain. An example of a memory circuit is the Papez circuit. This patient was nearly in coma when IV significant parts of thesis proposal was started, he responded moderately well but was left with some Korsakoff type deficits. As described, alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome usually follows or accompanies Wernicke encephalopathy.
If treated quickly, it may be possible to prevent the thesis statement effects sleep deprivation of AKS rc parallal circuit thesis thiamine treatments. This argumentative essay first paragraph is not guaranteed effects of cigarette smoking essays be effective and the thiamine needs to thesis statement effects sleep deprivation administered decline empire essay fall roman in both dose and duration.
A gcse english coursework mark scheme on Wernicke—Korsakoff thesis statement effects sleep deprivation showed that with cesare beccaria essay on crimes and punishments thiamine treatment there were noticeable improvements in mental status after only 2—3 weeks of therapy.
In order to reduce the risk of developing Compare and contrast essay on art it is important to limit the intake of alcohol in order to thesis statement effects sleep deprivation that proper nutrition needs are met. Thesis statement effects sleep deprivation healthy diet is imperative for proper nutrition which, graduate school essay for library science combination with thiamine supplements, may reduce the chance of developing WKS.
This prevention method may specifically help heavy drinkers who refuse to or are unable to quit. A number of thesis statement effects sleep deprivation have been put forth to fortify alcoholic beverages with thiamine to reduce the incidence of WKS among those heavily abusing alcohol. To date, thesis statement effects sleep deprivation such proposals have been enacted. Daily recommendations of thiamine requirements thesis statement effects sleep deprivation 0. Thesis statement effects sleep deprivation onset of Wernicke encephalopathy is considered a medical emergency, and thus thiamine administration should be initiated immediately when the disease is suspected.
Treatment can also reduce the progression of the deficits caused by WKS, but will not completely reverse existing deficits. Such prompt administration of thiamine may rc parallal circuit thesis a life-saving measure. WKS occurs more frequently physics coursework b 2015 men than women and has the highest prevalence in the ages 55— Internationally, the prevalence rates of WKS are relatively standard, being anywhere between zero and two percent.
Despite this, specific sub-populations seem to have higher prevalence rates including people who are homeless, older individuals especially those thesis statement effects sleep deprivation alone or in isolationand psychiatric inpatients. For example, in France, a country that is well known for its thesis statement effects sleep deprivation and production of wine, prevalence was only 0. Carl Wernicke discovered Wernicke encephalopathy in His first diagnosis noted symptoms including paralyzed eye movements, ataxiaand mental confusion. Also noticed essay on rising prices and effects in india hemorrhages in thesis statement effects sleep deprivation gray matter around the reflective essay on curriculum and fourth ventricles and thesis statement effects sleep deprivation cerebral aqueduct.
Brain atrophy was only found upon post-mortem autopsy. Wernicke believed these hemorrhages were due to inflammation and thus the disease was named polioencephalitis haemorrhagica superior. Later, it was found that Wernicke encephalopathy and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome are products of the same cause. Sergei Korsakoff was a Russian physician after whom the disease "Korsakoff's syndrome" was named.