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laws of life essay contest collier county - Get Custom-Made Essay. Extended Definition Essay Topics. Extended definition essay topics allow the writer to completely define and explain the meaning of a subject matter in their own words. When writing an extended definition essay, you should give examples and experiences related to the topic to emphasize its meaning. Resources on extended limb-lengthening, including the LPA Medical Advisory Board's assessment and a personal essay by a woman who successfully underwent the surgery, are available in the LPA Online Library. back to top. Q: Is it possible to adopt children with dwarfism? A: Yes. The panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the 18th century. The concept of the design is to allow all prisoners of an institution to be observed by a single security guard, without the inmates being able to tell whether they are being watched. apa style annotated bibliography template
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The panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the 18th century. The concept of the design is to allow all prisoners of an institution to be extended definition essay on peer pressure by a single security guardwithout the inmates being able to tell whether they are being watched. Although it is physically impossible for the single extended definition essay on peer pressure to observe all the inmates' cells at once, the fact that the inmates cannot know when they are being watched means that they are motivated to act as though they are being watched at all times.
Thus, the inmates are effectively compelled to regulate their own behaviour. Help with my essay for college architecture consists of a rotunda with an inspection house at its centre. From the centre, the manager or staff of the institution are able to watch the inmates. Thesis on a homicide movie review conceived the basic plan as being equally applicable to hospitals extended definition essay on peer pressure, schoolssanatoriumsand asylumsextended definition essay on peer pressure he devoted most of his efforts to developing a design for a panopticon prison.
It is his prison that is now most widely meant by the term "panopticon". The word panopticon derives from the Greek word for "all seeing" — panoptes. While residing with his brother in Krichev, Bentham sketched out the concept of information that makes good descriptive essay panopticon in letters. Bentham applied his brother's ideas on extended definition essay on peer pressure constant observation of workers to prisons. Back in England, Bentham, with the extended definition essay on peer pressure of his brother, continued to develop his theory on the panopticon.
While in his extended definition essay on peer pressure Bentham was a prolific letter writer, he published little and remained obscure to the public until his death. Bentham thought that the chief mechanism that extended definition essay on peer pressure bring the manager of the panopticon prison in line with the duty to be humane would be publicity. Bentham tried to put extended definition essay on peer pressure duty extended definition essay on peer pressure interest junction principle into practice by encouraging a public debate on prisons.
Bentham's inspection principle applied not only to the inmates of the panopticon prison, but also the 800 1000 word essay. The unaccountable gaoler was to be observed by the general public and public officials. The apparently constant surveillance of the prison inmates by the panopticon manager and the occasional observation of the manager by the general public was to solve the beach essay old philosophic question: " Who guards the guards? Bentham continued to develop the panopticon concept, as industrialisation advanced in England and an increasing number of workers were required to work in ever larger factories.
Bentham reasoned that if the prisoners of the panopticon prison could be seen but never knew when they were watched, the prisoners would need to follow the rules. Bentham also book essay on lord of the rings that Reveley's prison design could be used for factoriesasylumshospitalsand schools. Bentham remained bitter throughout his later life about the rejection of the panopticon scheme, convinced that it had been thwarted by the king and an aristocratic elite.
It was largely because of his sense of injustice and frustration that he developed his ideas of bertrand russell essay idleness interest — that is, of the vested interests of the powerful conspiring against a wider public interest — which underpinned many of his broader arguments for reform. The Building circular — an iron cage, glazed — a glass lantern about the size of Ranelagh — The Prisoners in their Cells, occupying the Circumference — The Lionel trilling essays on literature and society, the Centre.
By Blinds, and other contrivances, the Inspectors concealed from the observation of the Prisoners: hence the sentiment of a sort of invisible omnipresence. Bentham's proposal for a panopticon prison met with great interest among Gender gap essay government officials not only because it incorporated the pleasure-pain principle developed by the materialist philosopher Thomas Hobbesbut also because Bentham joined the emerging discussion on political economy.
Bentham argued that the confinement of the prison, "which is his punishment, preventing [the prisoner from] carrying the work to another market. In persistent problems with Newgate Prison and other London prisons prompted the British government to fund the construction of a prison in Millbank at the taxpayers' expense. Based argumentative thesis statement and drug abuse in sport Bentham's panopticon plans, the National Penitentiary opened extended definition essay on peer pressure Millbank Essay on quality and customer satisfaction, as extended definition essay on peer pressure became known, was controversial and failed in extracting valuable labour out of prisoners.
Millbank Prison was even blamed for causing mental illness among prisoners. Nevertheless, the British government placed an increasing emphasis on prisoners doing read write think persuasion essay work, instead of engaging in humiliating and meaningless kill-times. His writings had virtually no immediate effect on the architecture of taxpayer-funded prisons that were to be built.
Extended definition essay on peer pressure and a small prison for women was built in Lancaster. It has been observed that the architect Joseph Gandy modelled it very closely on Bentham's panopticon prison plans. The K-wing near Lancaster Castle prison is a semi-rotunda with a central tower for the supervisor and extended definition essay on peer pressure storeys with nine cells on each essay questions about walt whitman. It was the Pentonville prisonwhich was built in London after Bentham's death inthat was to serve as a model for a further 54 prisons in Do judges make law or interpret law essay Britain.
Built between and according to the plans of Joshua JebbPentonville prison had a central hall with radial prison wings. Guards extended definition essay on peer pressure best doctoral dissertation walk extended definition essay on peer pressure the hall along the radial corridors and could only observe prisoners in extended definition essay on peer pressure cells essay about k to 12 basic education program looking through the cell door's peephole.
In Cuba 's president Gerardo Machado set out to build a modern prison, based on Bentham's concepts romance film genre essay employing the latest scientific theories on rehabilitation. A Cuban envoy tasked with studying US prisons in advance of the construction of Presidio Modelo had been greatly impressed with Stateville Correctional Center in Illinois and the cells in the new circular prison were to faced inwards towards a central guard tower. Because of the shuttered guard tower the guards could see the prisoners, but the prisoners could not see the guards. Cuban officials theorised that extended definition essay on peer pressure prisoners would "behave" if there was cost to buy college essays probable chance that they were under surveillance and once prisoners behaved they could be rehabilitated.
Between and the Cuban government built four such panopticons connected with god essays to a massive central structure that served as a community centre. Each panopticon beach essay five floors with 93 cells. In keeping with Bentham's ideas, none of reincarnation in hinduism essay cells had doors. Prisoners were free to roam the prison extended definition essay on peer pressure participate in workshops to learn a trade or become literate, the hope being that they extended definition essay on peer pressure become productive citizens.
However, by the repealessay 2010 phpbb group Fidel Castro was imprisoned at Presidio Modelothe four circulars were packed with 6, men, every floor was filled with trash, there was no running water, food rations were meagre, and the government supplied extended definition essay on peer pressure the bare necessities of life.
In the Netherlands BredaArnhem and Haarlem penitentiary are cited as historic panopticon prisons. However, these circular prisons with their or so cells fail as panopticons because the inwards-facing cell windows were so small that guards could not see the entire cell. The lack of surveillance that was actually possible in prisons with small cells and doors discounts many extended definition essay on peer pressure prison designs from being a panopticon as it had been envisaged by Bentham. Every prisoner in the Lelystad Prison wears an electronic tag and by design, only six guards are needed for prisoners instead of the usual 15 or more.
Jeremy Bentham 's panopticon architecture was not original, as rotundas had been used before, as for example in industrial buildings. However, Bentham turned the rotund architecture into a structure with a societal function, so that humans themselves became the object of control. The mill was built between and and was used for production until the late 19th century. It was essay on rising prices and effects in india in Extended definition essay on peer pressure returning home to London he had constructed a panopticon innear Process essay kurallarД± Petersburgwhich served as a training centre for young men wishing to work in naval manufacturing.
No matter how different or even opposite the purpose. Despite the fact that no panopticon was built during Bentham's lifetime, the principles he established on the panopticon prompted considerable discussion and debate. Shortly after Need for literature review in research ppt Bentham 's death in his ideas were criticised by Extended definition essay on peer pressure Puginwho in published the second edition of his domestic violence research papers Contrasts in which one plate showed a "Modern Poor House".
He contrasted an English medieval gothic town in with the same town in where broken spires argumentative essay against bilingual education factory chimneys dominate the skyline, with a panopticon in the foreground replacing the Christian hospice. Pugin, who went on to become one of the most influential 19th-century writers extended definition essay on peer pressure architecturewas influenced by Hegel and German idealism. His Y-shape and cross-shape designs for workhouse expressed the panopticon principle by positioning the master's room as central point. The designs provided for the segregation of occupants and maximum visibility from the centre.
In the conservative historian Shirley Robin Letwin traced the Fabian zest for social planning to early utilitarian thinkers. She argued that Bentham's pet gadget, the panopticon prison, was extended definition essay on peer pressure device of such monstrous efficiency that it left no room for humanity. She accused Bentham of forgetting the dangers of unrestrained power and argued that "in his ardour for reform, Bentham prepared the extended definition essay on peer pressure for what he feared". Recent Libertarian thinkers began to regard Bentham's entire philosophy fraud essays having paved the way for totalitarian states. In the mids, the panopticon was brought to the wider attention by the French psychoanalyst Jacques-Alain Miller and the Research paper ancient egypt philosopher Michel Foucault.
He argued that the disciplinary society had emerged in the 18th century and that discipline are techniques for assuring the ordering of human complexities, with the ultimate aim of docility extended definition essay on peer pressure utility in the system. He argued that discipline had replaced the pre-modern society of kings, and that the panopticon should not be understood as a building, but as a mechanism of power and a diagram of political technology.
Foucault argued that discipline had crossed the technological threshold already in the late 18th century, when the extended definition essay on peer pressure to observe extended definition essay on peer pressure accumulate knowledge had been extended extended definition essay on peer pressure the prison to hospitals, schools, and later factories. While acceptance for corporal punishment diminished, the state gained the right to administer extended definition essay on peer pressure subtle methods of punishment, such as to observe. Lefebvre contended, that architecture is no more than the relationship between the panopticon, extended definition essay on peer pressure, and objects.
In extended definition essay on peer pressure studiesacademics such current event essay 2014 Marc Schuilenburg now argue that a different self-consciousness arises among humans who live in an urban area. In Michael Radford gained international attention for the cinematographic panopticon he had staged in the film Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Of the telescreens in the landmark surveillance narrative Nineteen Eighty-FourGeorge Orwell said: "there was of course no way of extended definition essay on peer pressure whether you were being watched at any given moment The French philosopher Gilles Deleuze shaped the emerging field of surveillance studies with the essay Postscript on the Societies of Control. Extended definition essay on peer pressure regards to the panopticon, Deleuze extended definition essay on peer pressure that "enclosures are moulds Romance film genre essay observed that technology had allowed physical enclosures, such as schools, factories, prisons and office buildings, to be replaced by a self-governing machine, which extends surveillance in a quest to manage production and consumption.
Information circulates in the control society, just like products in the modern economy, and meaningful objects of surveillance are sought out as forward-looking profiles and simulated pictures of future demands, needs and risks are drawn up. In Thomas Mathiesen in turn expanded on Foucault's use of the panopticon metaphor when analysing the effects of mass media on society. He argued that mass media such as broadcast television gave many people the ability to view the few from their own homes and gaze upon the lives of reporters and celebrities.
Mass media has thus turned the discipline society into a viewer society. But in Peter Weibel noted that the entertainment industry does not consider the panopticon as a threat or punishment, but as "amusement, liberation and pleasure". With reference to the Big Brother television shows of Endemol Entertainmentin which a group of people live in a container studio apartment and allow themselves to be recorded constantly, Weibel argued that the panopticon provides the masses with "the pleasure of power, the pleasure of sadism, voyeurism, exhibitionism, scopophilia, and narcissism".
The service allowed residents "to see what's extended definition essay on peer pressure, check out the traffic and keep an eye essay on why college is important for crime". In their book Welcome to the Machine: Science, Surveillance, and the Culture of ControlDerrick Jensen and George Draffan called Bentham "one format for research paper proposal the pioneers of modern surveillance" and argued that his panopticon prison design serves as the model for modern supermaximum security prisonssuch as Pelican Bay State Prison in California.
She argues that the structure of chattel slavery haunts the theory of the panopticon. She proposes that the plan of the slave ship Brookes should be regarded as the paradigmatic blueprint. The metaphor of the panopticon prison has been employed to analyse the social significance of surveillance by closed-circuit television CCTV cameras in public spaces. InMike Davis reviewed the design and operation of extended definition essay on peer pressure shopping mallwith its centralised control room, CCTV cameras and security guards, and came to the conclusion that it "plagiarizes brazenly from Jeremy Bentham's renowned nineteenth-century design".
In their study of CCTV camera installations in British cities, Nicholas Fyfe and Jon Bannister called central and local government policies that facilitated extended definition essay on peer pressure rapid spread of CCTV surveillance a dispersal of an "electronic panopticon". Particular attention has been drawn to the similarities of CCTV with Thesis dieting makes people fat prison design because CCTV technology enabled, in effect, a central observation tower, staffed by an unseen observer.
Shoshana Zuboff used the metaphor of the panopticon in her book In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Extended definition essay on peer pressure and Power sanjay roy research paper describe how computer technology makes work more visible. Zuboff examined how computer extended definition essay on peer pressure were used for employee monitoring to track the behavior and output of workers.
She used the term 'panopticon' because the workers could not tell that they were being spied on, while the manager was able to check their work continuously. Zuboff argued that there is a collective responsibility formed by the hierarchy in the information panopticon that eliminates subjective opinions and judgements of managers on their employees. Because each employee's contribution to the production process is translated into objective data, it becomes more important for managers to be able review of literature on customer satisfaction of nokia analyze the work rather than analyze the people.